Orchard na granice online dating
The recently developed AVALMAPPER software allows the creation of an orthoimage from a terrestrial (oblique) photograph using photogrammetric and computer vision rules and has been successfully applied in the manual vectorization of avalanche areas [62,63,64].Bozzini [61,65] proposed the WSL Monoplotting Tool, which allows different features to be measured directly on a previously georeferenced terrestrial photograph.Kane  demonstrated that if field measurements are not available, forest successional stages can be accurately characterized by Li DAR data.Recently, object-based image analysis (OBIA; [39,40,41]) has been used to process Li DAR data and particularly Li DAR-derived canopy height models (CHM), to delineate individual trees [42,43,44] and forest stands [31,45,46] and to discriminate between different land cover types .Secondary forest succession on abandoned land can be easily observed and mapped over small areas in the field [25,26] but is difficult to monitor with remote sensing because the related changes in land cover are subtle, dispersed and difficult to discriminate from other land uses, such as gardens, orchards, tree nurseries or even parks [17,27].Several studies have used optical imagery at various spatial resolutions to document land abandonment and forest succession in different regions [15,16,18,24,28,29,30].
This work was performed in the Szczawnica commune in the Polish Carpathians.
Several studies have integrated Li DAR data with other sources to increase the accuracy of vegetation mapping at various scales [48,49,50] and find the best case-specific solutions.
Overall, many studies have demonstrated the outstanding capacity of Li DAR data to monitor various stages of forest succession.
Quantification of secondary forest succession is critical for the sustainable management of forestry and agricultural resources, biodiversity monitoring and climate change modeling .
For more than 100 years, Europe has experienced an increase in forest cover [2,3,4] due to afforestation and forest expansion on abandoned agricultural land.
Secondary forest succession on abandoned land in the Polish Carpathians typically occurs at high elevations, on steep slopes, and near forest edges .